real estate

Project: BULGARIA - HISTORICAL DATA
Project Type: real estate

Description:

Bulgaria - an ancient land

As a state established by khan Asparuh, Bulgaria has been exciting for more than 13 countries. Thracians were the first settlers in the Bulgarian lands and their civilisation is evidenced by the numerous archaeological finds, uncovered tombs, discovered gold and silver treasures. Testimonies for the presence of life in the pre-historic ages have been preserved in the best preserved Neolithic housings discovered world-wide-namely those off the town of Stara Zagora, in the “Bacho Kiro” cave off the town of Dryanovo and in the Magurata cave-close to the town of Belogradchik. The first written reference where the name “Bulgarians” is to be found is included in an anonymous Roman chronograph of 452 AD.

The settlers

During the Bronze Age the present-day Bulgarian lands were inhabited by the Thracians, mentioned for the first time be Homer. There were engaged in agriculture and stockbreeding, and left evidence of rich culture (the Vulchitrun gold treasure). The first Tracian state unions emerged in the 11th-6th centuries BC, which flourished in the 7th-6th centuries BC. In the 1st century BC their lands were conquered by Rome, and after the 5th century AD they were incorporated in the Byzantine Empire. The Thracians were later gradually assimilated by the Slavs who settled in the Balkan Peninsula in the 6th century AD.

A major political force

Under the rule of Khan Tervel(700-718 AD), Bulgaria expanded its territory and turned into a major political force. Under Khan Kroum(803-889 AD) Bulgaria bordered with the empire of Carl the Great to the west, and to the east the Bulgarian troops reached the walls of Constantinople, the capital of Byzantine Empire. In 864 AD, during the rule of Prince Boris I Michail(852-889 AD), the Bulgarians adopted Christianity as their official religion. The act abolished the ethnic differences between Proto-Bulgarians and Slavs, and started building a unified Bulgarian nation. After adopted Christianity, the influence of the Byzantine Empire grew. This evidenced by the ossuary in the Bachkovo Monastery(1083 AD). Bulgarian church music was created.

The Cyrilic Alphabet

In the second half of the 9th century the brothers Cyril(Konstantin the Philosopher) and Methodius created and disseminated the Cyrilic alphabet. Their disciples Clement and Nahum came to Bulgaria, where they were warmly welcomed and found good conditions for work. They developed a rich educational and literary activity. From Bulgaria the Cyrillic script spread to other Slavic lands as well-present-day Serbia and Russia. The cities of Ochrida and Pliska, and subsequently the new capital city Veliki Preslav as well, became centres of Bulgarian culture, and of Slav culture as a whole.

Golden Age of Bulgarian Culture

The reign of Tsar Simeon I(893-927 AD) marked the “Golden Age of Bulgarian Culture”, and the territory of his state reached the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. During the reign of Simeon’s successors, Bulgaria was weakened by internal struggles, the heresy of the priest Bogomil spread and influenced the teaching of the Cathars and Albigenses in Western Europe.

The Three Kingdoms

The First Bulgarian Kingdom

681 AD- The Bulgarian state was established – one of the first ever Europeans states. The first Bulgarian capital was Pliska. Its stars (khans) Asparoukh, Krum the Dreadful (803-814 AD), Omurtag (852-831 AD) turned in into a mighty power in south-eastern Europe.

855 Ad- The Saint Brothers Cyril and Methosius made the Slovanic alphabet.

865 AD- Prince St. Boris (852-907 AD) did away with paganism and introduced Eas-Orthodox Christianity as the official religion in Bulgaria. In 865 AD he moved the capital from Pliska to Veliki Preslav (Great Preslav) The Byzantine Empire recognised him as tzar of Bulgarians.

893-927 AD- Under the rain of tzar Simeon (the great), son of tzar Boris I, the Bulgarian kingdom became the biggest in territory and the most powerful in Europe. The “golden age” of Bulgarian culture set in.

1018 AD Emperor Bazil II conquered Bulgaria and turned it into a province of the Byzantine empire.

The Second Bulgarian Kingdom

1185-1396The era of the Second Bulgarian kingdom, which came to being after a successful uprising by the Bulgarian aristocracy. The reign started of the Assan dynasty. They proclaimed the town of Turnovo as capital. Ivan-Asen II (1218-1241) was the best-known and powerful ruler of the period of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom.

1396- Bulgaria fell entirely under Ottoman Empire domination. In the course of long5 centuries Bulgaria was a province of the Ottoman Empire. In the process of the conquering the aristocracy was destroyed, the Bulgarian administration was done away with, the Bulgarian church was deprived of autocephaly and partriarchical rang and was placed under the Constantinople patriarchy.

1652- The beginning of the Bulgarian National Revival. Monk Paisii of the Hilendar Monastery (on Mount Athos) wrote the “Slav Bulgarian History” book.

1870- The April upsprings of the enslaved Bulgarian people burst out-it was smothered in a sea of blood but caused a big international response of indignation at the Turkish tyranny.

1877-1878- The Russian-Turkish Liberation war in which Bulgaria gave many lives for its freedom.

The Third Bulgarian Kingdom

The third Bulgarian kingdom State had its start with the San-Stefano peace agreement signed on march 3, 1878. As a result of that agreement Bulgaria was restored to the territory of three historical ethnic Bulgarian regions-namely Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. Bulgaria became the biggest Balkan country.

13 Jul 1878- the treaty of Berlin was signed as a result of which the newly-liberated Bulgaria was cut away to remain under Ottoman domination.

16 April 1879- The Turnovo Constitution was passed solemnly by the First Grand National Assembly.

26 June 1879- Alexandr Battenberg became prince of Bulgaria, and Sofia the capital of the new Bulgarian state.

6 September 1885- Unnification of the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia (the real-term liberation of Bulgaria)

22 September 1908- King Ferdinand I proclaimed Bulgaria’s full independence from Turkish rule.

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